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Cyber security technologist (2021)



K1: Principles of networks: OSI and TCP/IP models, data, protocols and how they relate to each other; the main routing protocols; the main factors affecting network performance including typical failure modes in protocols and approaches to error control; virtual networking Back to Duty

K2: the concepts, main functions and features of at least three Operating Systems (OS) and their security functions and associated security features. Back to Duty

K3: Cyber security concepts and why cyber security matters to business and society; Security assurance concepts and how assurance may be achieved in practice including penetration testing and extrinsic assurance methods. Back to Duty

K4: the main types of common attack techniques; also the role of human behaviour, including the significance of the ‘insider threat’. Including: how attack techniques combine with motive and opportunity to become a threat. Techniques and strategies to defend against attack techniques and mitigate hazards Back to Duty

K5: the significance of identified trends in cyber security threats and understand the value and risk of this analysis. How to deal with emerging attack techniques (including ‘zero day’), hazards and vulnerabilities relevant to the digital systems and business environment. Back to Duty

K6: lifecycle and service management practices to an established standard to a foundation level for example Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) foundation level. Back to Duty

K7: cyber incident response processes, incident management processes and evidence collection/preservation requirements to support incident investigation Back to Duty

K8: Understands the main features, applicability and how to apply the significant law, regulations and standards relevant specifically to cyber security. To include: laws, regulations & standards relating to personal data and privacy (e.g. Data Protection Act 2018 implementing General Data Protection Regulation); use of digital systems (e.g. Computer Misuse Act 1990 ); regulatory standards for cyber security, intelligence collection and law enforcement (e.g. Intelligence Services Act 1994, Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000; standards for good practice in cyber security (e.g. ISO 27001, CyberEssentials, NIST) and any updates or additions Back to Duty

K9: ethical principles and codes of good practice of at least one significant cyber security professional body and the ethical responsibilities of a cyber security professional. Back to Duty

K10: how to analyse employer or customer requirements to derive security objectives and taking account of the threats and overall context develop a security case which sets out the proposed security measures in the context with reasoned justification Back to Duty

K11: horizon scanning including use of recognised sources of threat intelligence and vulnerabilities. Back to Duty

K12: common security architectures and methodologies; be aware of reputable security architectures that incorporates hardware and software components, and sources of architecture patterns and guidance. How cyber security technology components are typically deployed in digital systems to provide security functionality including: hardware and software to implement security controls Back to Duty

K13: the basic terminology and concepts of cryptography; common cryptography techniques in use; the importance of effective key management and the main techniques used; legal, regulatory and export issues specific to the use of cryptography Back to Duty

K14: risk assessment and audit methodologies and approaches to risk treatment; approaches to identifying the vulnerabilities in organisations and security management systems; the threat intelligence lifecycle; the role of the risk owner in contrast with other stakeholders Back to Duty

K15: principles of security management systems, including governance, organisational structure, roles, policies, standards, guidelines and how these all work together to deliver the identified security outcomes. Back to Duty

K16: function and features of significant digital system components; typical architectures; common vulnerabilities in digital systems; principles and common practice in digital system security Back to Duty

K17: programming or scripting languages Back to Duty


S1: Discover vulnerabilities in a system by using a mix of research and practical exploration Back to Duty

S2: Analyse and evaluate security threats and hazards to a system or service or processes. Use relevant external source of threat intelligence or advice (e.g. National Cyber Security Centre) Combine different sources to create an enriched view of cyber threats and hazards Back to Duty

S3: Research and investigate common attack techniques and relate these to normal and observed digital system behaviour and recommend how to defend against them. Interpret and demonstrate use of external source of vulnerabilities (e.g. OWASP, intelligence sharing initiatives, open source) Back to Duty

S4: Undertake security risk assessments for simple systems without direct supervision and propose basic remediation advice in the context of the employer. Back to Duty

S5: Source and analyse security cases and describe what threats, vulnerability or risks are mitigated and identify any residual areas of concern. Back to Duty

S6: Analyse employer or customer requirements to derive security objectives and taking account of the threats and overall context develop a security case which sets out the proposed security measures in the context with reasoned justification Back to Duty

S7: Identify and follow organisational policies and standards for information and cyber security and operate according to service level agreements or other defined performance targets. Back to Duty

S8: Configure, deploy and use computer, digital network and cyber security technology. Back to Duty

S9: Recommend improvements to the cyber security posture of an employer or customer based on research into future potential cyber threats and considering threat trends. Back to Duty

S10: Design, build, test and troubleshoot a network incorporating more than one subnet with static and dynamic routes, to a given design requirement without supervision. Provide evidence that the system meets the design requirement. Back to Duty

S11: Analyse security requirements given (functional and non-functional security requirements that may be presented in a security case) against other design requirements (e.g. usability, cost, size, weight, power, heat, supportability etc.) for a given system or product. Identify conflicting requirements and propose, with reasoning, resolution through appropriate trade-offs. Back to Duty

S12: Design and build, systems in accordance with a security case within broad but generally well-defined parameters. This should include selection and configuration of typical security hardware and software components. Provide evidence that the system has properly implemented the security controls required by the security case Back to Duty

S13: Write program code or scripts to meet a given design requirement in accordance with employers’ coding standards Back to Duty

S14: Design systems employing encryption to meet defined security objectives. Develop and implement a plan for managing the associated encryption keys for the given scenario or system. Back to Duty

S15: Use tools, techniques and processes to actively prevent breaches to digital system security. Back to Duty

S16: Conduct cyber-risk assessments against an externally (market) recognised cyber security standard using a recognised risk assessment methodology. Back to Duty

S17: Identify cyber security threats relevant to a defined context Back to Duty

S18: Develop information security policies or processes to address a set of identified risks, for example from security audit recommendations. Back to Duty

S19: Develop information security policies within a defined scope to take account of legislation and regulation relevant to cyber security. Back to Duty

S20: Take an active part in a security audits against recognised cyber security standards, undertake gap analysis and make recommendations for remediation.. Back to Duty

S21: Develop plans for incident response for approval within defined governance arrangements for incident response. Back to Duty

S22: Develop plans for local business continuity for approval within defined governance arrangements for business continuity. Back to Duty

S23: Assess security culture using a recognised approach. Back to Duty

S24: Design and implement a simple ‘security awareness’ campaign to address a specific aspect of a security culture. Back to Duty

S25: Integrate and correlate information from various sources (including log files from different sources, digital system monitoring tools, Secure Information and Event Management (SIEM) tools, access control systems, physical security systems) and compare to known threat and vulnerability data to form a judgement based on evidence with reasoning that the anomaly represents a digital system security breach Back to Duty

S26: Recognise anomalies in observed digital system data structures (including by inspection of network packet data structures) and digital system behaviours (including by inspection of protocol behaviours) and by inspection of log files and by investigation of alerts raised by automated tools including SIEM tools. Back to Duty

S27: Accurately, objectively and concisely record and report the appropriate cyber security information, including in written reports within a structure or template provided. Back to Duty

S28: Configure digital system monitoring and analysis tools (e.g. SIEM tools), taking account of threat & vulnerability intelligence, indicators of compromise. Back to Duty

S29: Undertake root cause analysis of events and make recommendations to reduce false positives and false negatives. Back to Duty

S30: Manage local response to non-major incidents in accordance with a defined procedure. Back to Duty


B1: Logical – Applies logical thinking, for example, uses clear and valid reasoning when making decisions related to undertaking the work instructions Back to Duty

B2: Analytical – working with data effectively to see patterns, trends and draw meaningful conclusions. Back to Duty

B3: Works independently and takes responsibility. For example works diligently regardless of how much they are being supervised, and stays motivated and committed when facing challenges Back to Duty

B4: Shows initiative, being resourceful when faced with a problem and taking responsibility for solving problems within their own remit Back to Duty

B5: Thorough & organised. For example uses their time effectively to complete work to schedule and takes responsibility for managing their own work load and time Back to Duty

B6: Works effectively with a wide range of people in different roles, internally and externally, with a regard to inclusion & diversity policy Back to Duty

B7: Communicates effectively in a wide variety of situations for example contributing effectively to meetings and presenting complex information to technical and non-technical audiences Back to Duty

B8: Maintains a productive, professional and secure working environment. Back to Duty

B9: Creative – taking a variety of perspectives, taking account of unpredictable adversary and threat behaviours and approaches, bring novel and unexpected solutions to address cyber security challenges Back to Duty

B10: Problem Solving – Identifies issues quickly, solves complex problems and applies appropriate solutions. Dedicated to finding the true root cause of any problem and find solutions that prevent recurrence. Back to Duty

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